Rochelle B. Cagadas*, Flor A. Ceballo1, Christian Joseph R. Cumagun1 and Ireneo B. Pangga1
Banana and mango are the top commodities in the Philippines that are traded worldwide however, fungal diseases such as anthracnose affect their yield and quality. Environmentally sound control strategies have been explored and one of these is mycofumigation using fungal endophytes. This alternative approach is understudied in the Philippines, hence, the study aimed to evaluate the mycofumigation potential of fungal endophytes collected from Mt. Makiling, Luzon, Philippines and their pathogenicity to banana and mango fruits. In vitro and in vivo mycofumigation assays were conducted with a completely randomized design layout with triplicates per treatment under laboratory conditions.
The fungal endophytes used as mycofumigants, Diaporthe sp. and Fusarium proliferatum, were comparatively effective in controlling the anthracnose of banana and mango. The mycelial growth for in vitro assay of Colletotrichum musae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were significantly reduced compared to the control when exposed to volatile organic compounds produced by the fungal endophytes. In addition, the results of the in vivo mycofumigation assay against C. musae showed Diaporthe sp. had a significantly higher inhibition rate (93%) than F. proliferatum (67%) when grown on potato dextrose agar plates.
The bioefficacy of the Diaporthe sp. and F. proliferatum was improved when grown on peanut and corn seed substrates with a reduction of banana and mango anthracnose severity ranging from 82 to 100%. Cultures grown on corn substrate performed better than those grown on peanut. Pathogenicity tests also revealed that these endophytic fungi did not cause disease in the banana or mango fruits indicating their potential as good biocontrol agents against C. musae and C. gloeosporioides.
Keywords: Mycofumigation, endophytic fungi, Diaporthe sp., Fusarium proliferatum, Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides