Azolla pinnata R.Br.: a reliable fern species to demonstrate satisfactory in-vitro anti-oxidation under herbicidal toxicity

Arnab Kumar De1, Indraneel Saha1, Bipul Sarkar1, Narottam Dey2 and MK Adak1


The paper reports the induced antioxidation property of Azolla pinnata R.Br. under elevated conditions of the herbicide 2,4-D. With respect to phenolic accumulation, the plant registered varied in-vitro antioxidation potentials. Total antioxidation through phosphomolybdenum complex, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl, 1-picryllydrazyl), and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities were the most significant attributes of this plant species. A gradual fall in phosphomolybdenum complex suggested more involvement in the chelation of 2,4-D, with metal ligands. The plant was able to quench the reactive oxygen species (ROS) up to a certain level of 2,4-D but thereafter it failed. Another module with ABTS induced free radical antioxidation, the plant insignificantly responded to any changes of 2,4-D concentrations as compared to the control with reference to BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene). The most stable phenolic glucoside as flavonoid had a significant and dose-dependent over expression under 2,4-D toxicity. In modules of enzymatic antioxidants, Azolla was quite sensitive to peroxidation of H2O2 by different isozymic proteins. A significant participation of polyphenol oxidase and catalase were more pronounced whereas peroxidases were least significant in in vitro assay. Taking altogether both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidation indices, Azolla is an efficient quencher species for herbicide contaminated soils.

Keywords: Antioxidative enzymes, Antioxidants, Herbicide, Aquatic fern

Annals of Tropical Research 40(2):18-34(2018)
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